ZHU Yan 294b2ca

A Python code for simulation of defect associated carrier dynamics in silicon

Objectives and scopes

• It can be used to simulate single-level defects following Shockley-Read-Hall statistics or two-levels defects follwoing Sah-Shockley stastistc by numerically solving the carrier continuity equations.
• It can solve for thermal equlibrium condition, steady state illumination condition, transient condition with excitation sharply switch on or off.
• It is an 1-D simulation so no non-uniform distribution of carriers is considered.

Here is a simple explanation of how to use it:

1. Import the defectSimu class and other necessary libraries
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from DefectSimulation import defectSimu
1. Creat a defectSimu class object and define the doping, type and temperature of the silicon
example = defectSimu(Ndop = 1e14,doptype = 'n',temp = 300)
1. Define defects and add them to the defectSimu class object, the defect type, energy level Et, capture cross sections sigma_e and sigma_h, and concentration Nt need to be defined. The defect type can be:
• 'A' for an acceptor type sinle-level defect
• 'D' for a donor type sinle-level defect
• 'AA' for a double acceptor type two-levels defect, Et = [E--/-, E-/0]
• 'AD' for a donor acceptor type two-levels defect, Et = [E--/-, E-/0]
• 'DD' for a double donor type two-levels defect, Et = [E0/+, E+/++]
It shoule be noted that for two-levels defects, the energy levels and capture cross sections are ordered from the transition of the most negatively charged states to the most postively charged states
defect1 = {'type':'D','Et':0.,'sigma_e':1e-12,'sigma_h':1e-12,'Nt':1e12}
defect2 = {'type':'A','Et':0.,'sigma_e':1e-12,'sigma_h':1e-12,'Nt':1e12}
defect3 = {'type': 'DD','Nt': 1e12, 'Et': [-0.16,0.396], 'sigma_e': [1e-17, 1e-17], 'sigma_h': [1e-18, 1e-18]}

The current defect list can be shown with the function PrintDefectList

example.PrintDefectList()

The output should look like:

Defect No.0: {'type': 'D', 'Et': 0.0, 'sigma_e': 1e-12, 'sigma_h': 1e-12, 'Nt': 1000000000000.0}
Defect No.1: {'type': 'A', 'Et': 0.0, 'sigma_e': 1e-12, 'sigma_h': 1e-12, 'Nt': 1000000000000.0}
Defect No.2: {'type': 'DD', 'Nt': 1000000000000.0, 'Et': [-0.16, 0.396], 'sigma_e': [1e-17, 1e-17], 'sigma_h': [1e-18, 1e-18]}

You can also delete one or more of the defects using DelDefect specify the defect index

example.DelDefect(0)  ## This delete the defect with index 0 (so the defect 1)
example.PrintDefectList()

The output should like:

Defect No.0: {'type': 'A', 'Et': 0.0, 'sigma_e': 1e-12, 'sigma_h': 1e-12, 'Nt': 1000000000000.0}
Defect No.1: {'type': 'DD', 'Nt': 1000000000000.0, 'Et': [-0.16, 0.396], 'sigma_e': [1e-17, 1e-17], 'sigma_h': [1e-18, 1e-18]}
1. The thermal euilibrium solution should be automated updated whenever there is a change of the defect list, the electron concentration n0, the hole concentration p0 and fraction of defect in each charge states f0list are solved
print(example.n0, example.p0, example.f0list, sep='\n')

The output should be:

9.89962077369e+13
947428.977266
[[  9.99902181e-01   9.78186283e-05   0.00000000e+00]
[  9.99911590e-01   2.00697999e-07   8.82097434e-05]]

The f0list is a numpy array with the dimension (no. of defect, 3). For each defect, the fraction of each charge states are listed in the 3 element array. Again the order is from the most negatively charged states to the most postively charged states. So:

• 'A' f0list = [f-, f0, 0], the 0 here is meaningless, just to make the array length the same as two level defect
• 'D' f0list = [f-, f0, 0], the 0 here is meaningless, just to make the array length the same as two level defect
• 'AA' f0list = [f-, f0, f+]
• 'AD' f0list = [f--, f-, f0]
• 'DD' f0list = [f0, f+, f++]
1. Solve for steady state condition with SolveSS, the excess minority carrier density nxc needs to be defined, it can be one value or a list or an array of value
nlist, plist, flist = example.SolveSS(nxc=np.logspace(12,16,50))

The outputs are: the list of electron concentration, the list of hole concentration and the list of trap charge states distribution. The list of trap charge states distribution is an array with the dimension (no. of nxc, no. of defect, 3), it is similar to the f0list described above.
A simple function calculateSSlifetime can be used to calculate the steady state lifetime for minority carriers, majority carriers and apparent carriers. The photoconductance is also calculated (Actually the photoconductance times the thickness of sample).

dminorlist, tauminorlist, dmajlist, taumajorlist, dapplist, tauapplist, condlist = example.calculateSSlifetime(nlist, plist, flist)
plt.plot(dminorlist,tauminorlist,label='Minority')
plt.plot(dmajlist,taumajorlist,label='Majority')
plt.plot(dapplist,tauapplist,label='Apparent')
plt.legend()
plt.loglog()
plt.xlabel('Excess carrier density [cm-3]')

You should get something like this: 6. Solve for Transient decay with SolveTransient, the time list t, inital electron concentration n_initial, inital electron concentration p_initial, inital trap charge state distribution list flist_initial need to be defined, set the opt='decay'

t = np.linspace(0,1e-5,100000)  ## You might need to play with the steps of time for convergency of the solver
nlist_t, plist_t, flist_t, gen = example.SolveTransient(t, n_initial=nlist[-1], p_initial=plist[-1], flist_initial=flist[-1], opt='decay')
## in this example, we use the steady state solution at nxc =1e16 cm-3 as the intial decay condition

The outputs are: the list of electron concentration, the list of hole concentration, the list of trap charge states distribution and the list of generation rate (in this transient decay, it's a list of zeros)
A simple function calculateTranslifetime can be used to calculate the steady state lifetime for minority carriers, majority carriers and apparent carriers. The photoconductance is also calculated (Actually the photoconductance times the thickness of sample).

dminorlist_t, tauminorlist_t, dmajlist_t, taumajorlist_t, dapplist_t, tauapplist_t, condlist_t = example.calculateTranslifetime(nlist_t, plist_t, t, gen)
plt.plot(dminorlist_t,tauminorlist_t,label='Minority')
plt.plot(dmajlist_t,taumajorlist_t,label='Majority')
plt.plot(dapplist_t,tauapplist_t,label='Apparent')
plt.legend()
plt.loglog()
plt.xlabel('Excess carrier density [cm-3]')
plt.xlim([1e8,1e16])

You should get something like this: 7. Other functions for you to explore:

• Solve for the Transient process with a sharply switched on generation with SolveTransient, another parameter the generation rate fillG needs to be defined, set the opt='fill'. This can be used to simulate the carrier capture process of traps under a sharply switched on excitation.
• The function calculateChargeNeutrality can be used to check the charge neutrality for given nlist, plist and flist
• There is also simple function singlelevelSRH and twolevelSRH using analytical equations to calculate minority carrier lifetime for a single-level defect and a two-levels defect respectively. It should be noted that the analytical equations assumes Δn = Δp
• A function calculateRate can be used to output the capture and emission rate from each defect level for given nlist, plist and flist

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