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Face Detection

This subdir includes face detection related codes. Some descriptions has been presented in repo README.md.

Recent Update

  • 2019.08.01 model v1 (in the paper) and v2 are added.
  • 2019.08.22 latency evaluation on TX2 is added.
  • 2019.08.25 RetinaFace-MobileNet-0.25 is added for comparison (both accuracy and latency).
  • 2019.09.03 a better augmentation procedure replaces the old one in dataiter.
  • 2019.09.09 LFFD is ported to NCNN (link) and MNN (link) by SyGoing, great thanks to SyGoing.
  • 2019.09.10 important bug fix: vibration offset should be subtracted by shift in data iterator. This bug may result in lower accuracy, inaccurate bbox prediction and bbox vibration in test phase. We will upgrade v1 and v2 as soon as possible (should have higher accuracy and more stable).
  • 2019.09.17 model v2 is upgraded! After fixing the bug, we have fine-tuned the old v2 model. The accuracy on WIDER FACE is improved significantly! Please try new v2 (./saved_model/configuration_10_320_20L_5scales_v2/train_10_320_20L_5scales_v2_iter_1000000.params).

Brief Introduction to Model Version

  • v1 - refer to the paper for details
  • v2 - the detection scale is 10-320 (vs 10-560 in v1), the number of layers is 20, the backbone is modified for faster inference. Refer to ./symbol_farm/symbol_structures.xlsx for details.


All accuracy evaluations are conducted under the SIO schema (please refer to the paper for details).

  • Results on val set of WIDER FACE:
Model Version Easy Set Medium Set Hard Set
RetinaFace-mnet 0.896 0.871 0.681
v1 0.910 0.881 0.780
v2 0.837 0.875 0.835 0.863 0.729 0.754
  • due to giving up detecting large faces, the accuracy of v2 decreases obviously compared to v1. In fact, v2 is enough for practical use.
  • RetinaFace-mnet is short for RetinaFace-MobileNet-0.25. (The excellent work from insightface)
  • Results on FDDB:
Model Version Disc ROC curves score
RetinaFace-mnet 0.960
v1 0.973
v2 0.972 0.971

Inference Latency

  • Platform info: NVIDIA Jetson NANO, CUDA 10.0, CUDNN 7.5.0, TensorRT 5.1.6
Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720
v1 12.94ms(77.26FPS) 33.66ms(29.70FPS) 113.88ms(8.78FPS) 326.91ms(3.06FPS)
v2 10.48ms(95.39FPS) 23.28ms(42.96FPS) 77.56ms(12.89FPS) 222.30ms(4.50FPS)

CAUTION: The latency may vary even in the same setting.

  • Platform info: NVIDIA Jetson TX2, CUDA 10.0, CUDNN 7.5.0, TensorRT 5.1.6 (power mode: MAXN)
Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080
v1 6.12ms(163.47FPS) 13.50ms(74.06FPS) 46.65ms(21.44FPS) 131.38ms(7.61FPS) 291.24ms(3.43FPS)
v2 4.40ms(227.39FPS) 9.15ms(109.31FPS) 31.46ms(31.79FPS) 89.22ms(11.21FPS) 198.79ms(5.03FPS)

CAUTION: The latency may vary even in the same setting.

  • Platform info: NVIDIA RTX 2080TI, CUDA 10.0, CUDNN 7.4.2, TensorRT
Model Version 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080 3840×2160 7680×4320
v1 1.33ms(750.16FPS) 2.85ms(350.55FPS) 6.97ms(143.40FPS) 15.10ms(66.22FPS) 59.91ms(16.69FPS) 233.19ms(4.29FPS)
v2 1.06ms(946.04FPS) 2.12ms(472.04FPS) 5.02ms(199.10FPS) 10.80ms(92.63FPS) 42.41ms(23.58FPS) 167.25ms(5.98FPS)
  • Platform info: NVIDIA GTX 1060(laptop), CUDA 10.0, CUDNN 7.4.2, TensorRT
Model Version 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080 3840×2160
v1 2.54ms(393.78FPS) 7.28ms(137.28FPS) 20.13ms(49.67FPS) 44.76ms(22.34FPS) 176.54ms(5.66FPS)
v2 1.84ms(544.93FPS) 5.06ms(197.53FPS) 13.97ms(71.60FPS) 30.47ms(32.82FPS) 121.53ms(8.23FPS)
  • Platform info: ARM A53@1.4GHz, Ubuntu 18.04-64bit, MNN&Tegine (coming soon)


Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080
v1 - - - - -
v2 - - - - -


Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080
v1 - - - - -
v2 - - - - -
  • Platform info: Intel Movidius NCS1 and NCS2 (in the future)


Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080
v1 - - - - -
v2 - - - - -


Model Version 160×140 320×240 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080
v1 - - - - -
v2 - - - - -

Inference Latency vs RetinaFace-MobileNet-0.25

The UpSampling operator in RetinaFace-mnet is not supported by mx2onnx currently, so it is not so easy to convert to onnx format for TensorRT evaluation. We use MXNet with CUDNN instead (this also can reflect the latency trend).

  • Latency on NVIDIA RTX 2080TI (MXNet+CUDA 10.0+CUDNN7.4.2):
Resolution-> 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080 3840×2160 7680×4320
RetinaFace-mnet 5.40ms(185.26FPS) 6.31ms(158.60FPS) 10.26ms(97.47FPS) 29.29ms(34.14FPS) 118.42ms(8.44FPS)
v1 7.24ms(138.16FPS) 14.58ms(68.57FPS) 28.36ms(35.26FPS) 100.18ms(9.98FPS) 380.62ms(2.63FPS)
v2 5.04ms(198.59FPS) 9.79ms(102.14FPS) 18.17ms(55.04FPS) 65.86ms(15.18FPS) 245.16ms(4.08FPS)
  • Latency on NVIDIA GTX 1060(laptop) (MXNet+CUDA 10.0+CUDNN7.4.2):
Resolution-> 640×480 1280×720 1920×1080 3840×2160
RetinaFace-mnet 4.90ms(204.17FPS) 10.85ms(92.19FPS) 22.44ms(44.57FPS) 79.48.29ms(12.58FPS)
v1 16.47ms(60.73FPS) 45.43ms(22.01FPS) 100.23ms(9.98FPS) 399.50ms(2.50FPS)
v2 10.99ms(90.97FPS) 29.45ms(33.96FPS) 63.64ms(15.71FPS) 253.89ms(3.94FPS)

RetinaFace-mnet uses MobileNet v1 as pre-trained backbone, showing both excellent accuracy and low latency. In the future, we will also explore much lighter backbone.

In the backbone, RetinaFace-mnet downsamples the input 8x before the first branch, whereas v2 downsamples 4x only. This is the main cause of the latency gap between RetinaFace-mnet and v2. Correspondingly, RetinaFace-mnet losses the ability to detect tiny objects (the accuracy on hard set of WIDER FACE is relatively lower).

User Instructions

If you just want to experience the trained model, head to the script ./accuracy_evaluation/predict.py and you can test your own images easily.

First, we introduce the functionality of each sub directory.

  • accuracy_evaluation. This folder contains the evaluation code for WIDERFACE and FDDB. The code only produces formatted results files. Please use the official code for metric calculation. WIDERFACE website, FDDB website.
  • symbol_farm. This folder contains net definitions for all model versions.
  • metric_farm. This folder contains the metrics for training monitoring.
  • inference_speed_evaluation. This folder contains the inference latency evaluation code. Currently, MXNet with CUDNN and TensorRT with CUDNN are supported.
  • deploy_tensorrt. This folder contains the code of deployment with TensorRT. For more details, please refer to README.md.
  • data_provider_farm. This folder contains the code of raw data processing/formatting/packing&unpacking.
  • data_iterator_farm. This folder contains the code of multi-threaded data prefetching. This is the most important part, since it describe the essence of LFFD!!!
  • config_farm. This folder contains the configurations of all model versions. The training is started by running the corresponding config python script.

Second, we present a common procedure for running the code for training (taking v1 as an example).

  1. prepare symbol net symbol_farm/symbol_10_560_25L_8scales_v1.py
  2. (optional) check the latency by using inference_speed_evaluation/inference_speed_eval.py
  3. prepare the training data by using the code in data_provider_farm. We provide a packed training data of WIDERFACE trainset. Please download from Data Download.
  4. adjust the code around the line 241 in data_iterator_farm/multithread_dataiter_for_cross_entropy_vx. This segment of code may vary task to task.
  5. set the variables in configuration py script in config_farm and run.

Advanced Tips

  • In practical, we always know the rough scales of the target objects. For example, in a face 1:1 identification device, the face is near the device and may ony vary from 300 pixels to 900 pixels. If we use v1 for detection, we can rescale the original image with the factor 10/300, namely transferring detection of [300, 900] to [10, 30]. Additionally, the deeper branches (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) are no longer useful, they can be cut off. The two means (rescale and cut off) will further decrease the latency. That is to say, for a specific task, the model can be modified to better adapt for the scenario.

  • Change to low bit data type, like float16 and int8. This will make the model run with smaller memory footprints. The latency may not definitely decrease, and it depends on the hardware platform. TensorRT supports float16 and int8.

  • Network pruning and compression techniques are also available for smaller mode size and lower latency. (we may add this in the future)

Data Download

We have packed the training data of WIDERFACE train set. In the data, the faces less than 8 pixels are ignored, and some pure negative images cropped from the training images are also added. We provide three ways to download the packed data:

After you download the data, you can put it anywhere. Remember to set param_trainset_pickle_file_path variable in the configuration file. (we usually put the data into the folder: ./data_provider_farm/data_folder/)

Future Directions

  • better training strategies, like pre-training, better optimizer, loss branch balance...
  • much lighter backbone. MobileNet and ShuffleNet series are classic choices, maybe they are not the best. We will explore something new and touch the limit of the speed.
  • study the best match between RF and scales, which may produce more efficient backbones.

Qualitative Results

(the following results are obtained by v1 with only one inference)







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