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README
Apache-2.0

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官方网站http://webmagic.io/

webmagic是一个开源的Java垂直爬虫框架,目标是简化爬虫的开发流程,让开发者专注于逻辑功能的开发。webmagic的核心非常简单,但是覆盖爬虫的整个流程,也是很好的学习爬虫开发的材料。

webmagic的主要特色:

  • 完全模块化的设计,强大的可扩展性。
  • 核心简单但是涵盖爬虫的全部流程,灵活而强大,也是学习爬虫入门的好材料。
  • 提供丰富的抽取页面API。
  • 无配置,但是可通过POJO+注解形式实现一个爬虫。
  • 支持多线程。
  • 支持分布式。
  • 支持爬取js动态渲染的页面。
  • 无框架依赖,可以灵活的嵌入到项目中去。

webmagic的架构和设计参考了以下两个项目,感谢以下两个项目的作者:

python爬虫 scrapy https://github.com/scrapy/scrapy

Java爬虫 Spiderman http://git.oschina.net/l-weiwei/spiderman

webmagic的github地址:https://github.com/code4craft/webmagic

快速开始

使用maven

webmagic使用maven管理依赖,在项目中添加对应的依赖即可使用webmagic:

<dependency>
    <groupId>us.codecraft</groupId>
    <artifactId>webmagic-core</artifactId>
    <version>0.7.3</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>us.codecraft</groupId>
    <artifactId>webmagic-extension</artifactId>
    <version>0.7.3</version>
</dependency>

WebMagic 使用slf4j-log4j12作为slf4j的实现.如果你自己定制了slf4j的实现,请在项目中去掉此依赖。

<exclusions>
    <exclusion>
        <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
        <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
    </exclusion>
</exclusions>

项目结构

webmagic主要包括两个包:

  • webmagic-core

    webmagic核心部分,只包含爬虫基本模块和基本抽取器。webmagic-core的目标是成为网页爬虫的一个教科书般的实现。

  • webmagic-extension

    webmagic的扩展模块,提供一些更方便的编写爬虫的工具。包括注解格式定义爬虫、JSON、分布式等支持。

webmagic还包含两个可用的扩展包,因为这两个包都依赖了比较重量级的工具,所以从主要包中抽离出来,这些包需要下载源码后自己编译::

  • webmagic-saxon

    webmagic与Saxon结合的模块。Saxon是一个XPath、XSLT的解析工具,webmagic依赖Saxon来进行XPath2.0语法解析支持。

  • webmagic-selenium

    webmagic与Selenium结合的模块。Selenium是一个模拟浏览器进行页面渲染的工具,webmagic依赖Selenium进行动态页面的抓取。

在项目中,你可以根据需要依赖不同的包。

不使用maven

在项目的lib目录下,有依赖的所有jar包,直接在IDE里import即可。

第一个爬虫

定制PageProcessor

PageProcessor是webmagic-core的一部分,定制一个PageProcessor即可实现自己的爬虫逻辑。以下是抓取osc博客的一段代码:

public class OschinaBlogPageProcesser implements PageProcessor {

    private Site site = Site.me().setDomain("my.oschina.net");

    @Override
    public void process(Page page) {
        List<String> links = page.getHtml().links().regex("http://my\\.oschina\\.net/flashsword/blog/\\d+").all();
        page.addTargetRequests(links);
        page.putField("title", page.getHtml().xpath("//div[@class='BlogEntity']/div[@class='BlogTitle']/h1").toString());
        page.putField("content", page.getHtml().$("div.content").toString());
        page.putField("tags",page.getHtml().xpath("//div[@class='BlogTags']/a/text()").all());
    }

    @Override
    public Site getSite() {
        return site;

    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Spider.create(new OschinaBlogPageProcesser()).addUrl("http://my.oschina.net/flashsword/blog")
             .addPipeline(new ConsolePipeline()).run();
    }
}

这里通过page.addTargetRequests()方法来增加要抓取的URL,并通过page.putField()来保存抽取结果。page.getHtml().xpath()则是按照某个规则对结果进行抽取,这里抽取支持链式调用。调用结束后,toString()表示转化为单个String,all()则转化为一个String列表。

Spider是爬虫的入口类。Pipeline是结果输出和持久化的接口,这里ConsolePipeline表示结果输出到控制台。

执行这个main方法,即可在控制台看到抓取结果。webmagic默认有3秒抓取间隔,请耐心等待。

使用注解

webmagic-extension包括了注解方式编写爬虫的方法,只需基于一个POJO增加注解即可完成一个爬虫。以下仍然是抓取oschina博客的一段代码,功能与OschinaBlogPageProcesser完全相同:

@TargetUrl("http://my.oschina.net/flashsword/blog/\\d+")
public class OschinaBlog {

    @ExtractBy("//title")
    private String title;

    @ExtractBy(value = "div.BlogContent",type = ExtractBy.Type.Css)
    private String content;

    @ExtractBy(value = "//div[@class='BlogTags']/a/text()", multi = true)
    private List<String> tags;

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        OOSpider.create(
        	Site.me(),
			new ConsolePageModelPipeline(), OschinaBlog.class).addUrl("http://my.oschina.net/flashsword/blog").run();
    }
}

这个例子定义了一个Model类,Model类的字段'title'、'content'、'tags'均为要抽取的属性。这个类在Pipeline里是可以复用的。

详细文档

http://webmagic.io/docs/

示例

webmagic-samples目录里有一些定制PageProcessor以抽取不同站点的例子。

webmagic的使用可以参考:oschina openapi 应用:博客搬家

协议

webmagic遵循Apache 2.0协议

邮件组:

Gmail: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/webmagic-java

QQ: http://list.qq.com/cgi-bin/qf_invite?id=023a01f505246785f77c5a5a9aff4e57ab20fcdde871e988

QQ群:

373225642(已满) 542327088

相关项目:

Gather Platform

Gather Platform 数据抓取平台是一套基于Webmagic内核的,具有Web任务配置和任务管理界面的数据采集与搜索平台。

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简介

webmagic 是一个无须配置、便于二次开发的爬虫框架,它提供简单灵活的API,只需少量代码即可实现一个爬虫。 展开 收起
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