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spring-could-2020

spring cloud学习笔记,基于spring boot 2.新版本,集成Spring Cloud、Spring Cloud Alibaba相关微服务组件。

一、版本选择

1.1 Spring Boot版本选择

git源码地址:

http://github.com/spring-projects/spring-boot/releases/

2.0版本说明:

https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-boot/wiki/Spring-Boot-2.0-Release-Notes

官方强烈建议我们升级到2.x版本

查看spring boot最新版本:

https://spring.io/projects/spring-boot

1.2 Spring Cloud版本选择

官网地址:

https://spring.io/projects/spring-cloud

可通过官网查看最新版本。

1.3 spring boot和spring cloud依赖关系

官网地址:

https://spring.io/projects/spring-cloud#overview

可以找到spring boot对应的 spring cloud版本推荐。

img

也可访问:https://start.spring.io/actuator/info

获取更详细的依赖信息。

二、本项目使用版本

Spring Cloud:Hoxton.SR1

Spring Boot:2.2.2.RELEASE

Spring Alibaba Cloud:alibaba 2.1.0.RELEASE

java:1.8

Maven:3.5及以上

三、总体使用组件

img

四、创建父工程

1.新建普通maven工程

2.添加pom文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>com.chengxiaoxiao.springcloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-parent</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>

    <!--统一管理jar包和版本-->
    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
        <junit.version>4.12</junit.version>
        <log4j.version>1.2.17</log4j.version>
        <lombok.version>1.16.18</lombok.version>
        <mysql.version>8.0.18</mysql.version>
        <druid.verison>1.1.16</druid.verison>
        <mybatis.spring.boot.verison>1.3.0</mybatis.spring.boot.verison>
    </properties>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <!--spring boot 2.2.2-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>2.2.2.RELEASE</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!--spring cloud Hoxton.SR1-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>Hoxton.SR1</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!--spring cloud alibaba 2.1.0.RELEASE-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-alibaba-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>2.2.0.RELEASE</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <!-- MySql -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <version>${mysql.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <!-- Druid -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
                <artifactId>druid-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
                <version>${druid.verison}</version>
            </dependency>
            <!-- mybatis-springboot整合 -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
                <version>${mybatis.spring.boot.verison}</version>
            </dependency>
            <!--lombok-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
                <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
                <version>${lombok.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <!--junit-->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>junit</groupId>
                <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
                <version>${junit.version}</version>
            </dependency>
            <!-- log4j -->
            <dependency>
                <groupId>log4j</groupId>
                <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
                <version>${log4j.version}</version>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <fork>true</fork>
                    <addResources>true</addResources>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>

dependencyManagement节点是管理依赖版本号的一种方式。可以使子模块无需,添加版本号。dependencyManagement只是声明,并不添加依赖。以此达到统一版本处理。

父工程创建完成了,要先执行mvn:install将父工程发布到仓库,方便子工程继承。

五、REST基础微服务

5.1 微服务提供者

1.建module

2.改POM文件

<dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>druid-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

3.yml文件修改

server:
  port: 8001

spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-payment-service

  datasource:
    type: com.alibaba.druid.pool.DruidDataSource
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql://192.168.4.188:3306/cloud2020?characterEncoding=utf8&useSSL=false&serverTimezone=UTC&rewriteBatchedStatements=true
    username: root
    password: 123456

mybatis:
  mapper-locations: classpath:mapper/*.xml
  type-aliases-package: com.chengxiaoxiao.cloud.entities #所有entity别名所在包

添加数据库:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `payment`;
CREATE TABLE `payment` (
  `id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `serial` varchar(200) DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

添加entities

@Data
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
public class Payment implements Serializable {
    private Long id;
    private String serial;
}

添加CommonResult

@Data
@AllArgsConstructor
@NoArgsConstructor
public class CommonResult<T> {
    private Integer code;
    private String msg;
    private T data;
}

添加Dao层

@Mapper
public interface PaymentDao {
    int create(Payment payment);

    Payment getPaymentById(@Param("id") Long id);
}

添加service

@Service
public class PaymentServiceImpl implements PaymentService {

    @Resource
    private PaymentDao paymentDao;

    @Override
    public int create(Payment payment) {
        return paymentDao.create(payment);
    }

    @Override
    public Payment getPaymentById(Long id) {
        return paymentDao.getPaymentById(id);
    }
}

添加mapper.xml文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE mapper PUBLIC "-//mybatis.org//DTD Mapper 3.0//EN" "http://mybatis.org/dtd/mybatis-3-mapper.dtd" >
<mapper namespace="PaymentDao">
    <insert id="create" parameterType="Payment" useGeneratedKeys="true" keyProperty="id">
        insert into payment(serial) values(#{serial})
    </insert>


    <resultMap id="BaseResultMap" type="Payment">
        <id column="id" property="id" jdbcType="BIGINT"/>
        <id column="serial" property="serial" jdbcType="VARCHAR"/>
    </resultMap>

    <select id="getPaymentById" parameterType="Long" resultMap="BaseResultMap">
        select * from payment where id=#{id}
    </select>
</mapper>

postman测试

img

img

5.2 配置热部署

1.添加依赖

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>

2.添加plugin,放入父工程

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
                <configuration>
                    <fork>true</fork>
                    <addResources>true</addResources>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

3.开启自动编译

image-20200328154621833

help->find action ->registry

image-20200328154729734

5.3 微服务消费者

1.建立module

2.添加pom依赖

<dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        </dependency>

3.建yml

server:
  port: 80
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-consumer-order

4.添加启动类

@SpringBootApplication
public class OrderMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderMain80.class, args);
    }
}

5.写controller实现调用微服务提供者,实现对其远程调用

使用RestTemplate是一种简单便捷的访问restful的服务类,用它可以远程调用url。

官网地址:https://docs.spring.io/spring-framework/docs/5.2.2.RELEASE/javadoc-api/org/springframework/web/client/RestTemplate.html

添加config,注入进入工程。

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig {
    @Bean
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate(){
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}

RestTemplate:主要包括getforObject/getForEntity。entity返回了更多的信息,如请求头之类的。forObject主要返回响应体

controller

@RestController
public class PaymentController {

    private final String PAYMENT_URL = "http://localhost:8001";
    @Resource
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @PostMapping("/consumer/payment/create")
    public CommonResult create(Payment payment) {
        return restTemplate.postForObject(PAYMENT_URL + "/payment/create", payment, CommonResult.class);
    }

    @GetMapping("/consumer/payment/{id}")
    public CommonResult getPayment(@PathVariable("id") Long id) {
        return restTemplate.getForObject(PAYMENT_URL + "/payment/getPaymentById/" + id, CommonResult.class);
    }
}

测试

image-20200328161159601

image-20200328161237697

六、工程重构

目前工程中entiyies在每个module中都需要重新建立一份,而这些信息,是通用的。完全可以提出来新建立一个module,让所有module依赖此公用module。

新建cloud-api-common module

添加依赖

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>cn.hutool</groupId>
            <artifactId>hutool-all</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.0</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

拷贝entities文件。

mvn:install

其他项目添加依赖:

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.chengxiaoxiao.springcloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>cloud-api-common</artifactId>
            <version>${project.version}</version>
        </dependency>

七、Eureka服务注册与发现

7.1相关概念

1.什么是服务治理?

传统rpc远程调用中,服务与服务之间依赖和管理比较复杂,所以需要引入服务治理框架,管理他们之间的依赖关系,同时又实现了服务调用、负载均衡、容错等,实现了服务的注册与发现。

2.什么是服务注册与发现?

把服务注册到注册中去,消费者去注册中心上查询注册了哪些服务,服务有多少个实例,哪些是健康的,哪些是不可用,可以称之为服务发现

7.2单机版Eureka

1.服务端注册中心

1.1建立module cloud-eureka-server7001

1.2添加pom文件依赖

 <!--eureka-server-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.chengxiaoxiao.springcloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>cloud-api-common</artifactId>
            <version>${project.version}</version>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-devtools</artifactId>
            <scope>runtime</scope>
            <optional>true</optional>
        </dependency>

1.3yml文件

server:
  port: 7001

eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: localhost
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false #表示不向注册中心注册自己
    fetch-registry: false #false表示自己就是注册中心,我的职责就是维护服务实例,并不区检索服务
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://${eureka.instance.hostname}:${server.port}/eureka/ # 不搭建集群 单机 指向自己

1.4添加启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaServer
public class EurekaMain7001 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(EurekaMain7001.class,args);
    }
}

1.5测试访问:http://localhost:7001

image-20200329143936618

2.客户端集成

把8001集成euarke客户端

1.添加pom依赖

       <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-client</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.改写yml

eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: true #表示向注册中心注册自己 默认为true
    fetch-registry: true #是否从EurekaServer抓取已有的注册信息默认为true,单节点无所谓,集群必须设置为true才能配合ribbon使用负载均衡
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:7001/eureka/

3.改写启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
public class PaymentMain8001 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(PaymentMain8001.class, args);
    }
}

4.测试,先启动server 在启动客户端

image-20200329151626758

自我保护机制:默认情况下,当某个服务宕机后,euarke server不会立即在注册中心将其删除掉。而是当过一段时间后,到达某个阈值之后,才会将其移除。

7.3集群版Eureka

Erreka集群版,主要是server端的互相注册,互相守望。

下面新建一个Euarka server实现。

1.添加依赖

        <!--eureka-server-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.添加yml

7001守望7002

server:
  port: 7001

eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: eureka7001.com
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: false
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka/
spring:
  application:
    name: eureka-server-7001

7002守望7001

server:
  port: 7002
eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: eureka7002.com
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: false
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka/
spring:
  application:
    name: eureka-server-7002

3.添加主启动类

7002添加主启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaServer
public class EurekaServerMain7002 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(EurekaServerMain7002.class, args);
    }
}

客户端注册进集群

客户端yml配置修改

eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: true #表示向注册中心注册自己 默认为true
    fetch-registry: true #是否从EurekaServer抓取已有的注册信息,默认为true,单节点无所谓,集群必须设置为true才能配合ribbon使用负载均衡
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka/,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka/

测试:

image-20200329155338013

7.4负载均衡

消费者不能写死提供者IP。

private final String PAYMENT_URL = "http://CLOUD-PAYMENT-SERVICE";

直接写服务名。并在RestTemplate上开启负载均衡功能

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig {
    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate getRestTemplate() {
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}

7.5补充信息

  instance:
    instance-id: payment8002
    prefer-ip-address: true

格式化名称、显示IP

7.6服务发现

对于注册Eureka里面的微服务可以通过服务发现来获得该服务的信息。

主启动类添加@EnableDiscoveryClient注解,开启服务发现。

    @Resource
    private DiscoveryClient discoveryClient;
        @GetMapping("/payment/discovery")
    public Object discovery() {
        List<String> services = discoveryClient.getServices();

        for (String service : services) {
            log.info("**********" + service);
        }

        //一个微服务下的全部实例
        List<ServiceInstance> instances = discoveryClient.getInstances("CLOUD-PAYMENT-SERVICE");
        for (ServiceInstance instance : instances) {
            log.info(instance.getServiceId() + instance.getHost() + ":" + instance.getPort() + "/" + instance.getUri());
        }
        return this.discoveryClient;
    }

7.7自我保护机制

简单理解:某个时刻一个微服务不可用了。Eureka不会立即清理,依旧会对该服务的信息做保存。

默认情况下,是开启自我保护机制的。

服务端设置:关闭自我保护机制:

eureka:
  instance:
    hostname: eureka7001.com
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: false
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka/
      server:
        enable-self-preservation: false # 关闭自我保护机制 保证不可用服务及时清除
        eviction-interval-timer-in-ms: 2000

客户端可以设置:

eureka.instance.lease-renewal-interval-in-seconds=30

Eureka 客户端向服务端发送心跳的时间间隔 , 单位为秒 ( 默认是 30)

eureka.instance.lease-expiration-duration-in-seconds=90

Eureka 服务端在收到最后一次心跳后等待时间上限 , 单位为秒 ( 默认是 90), 超时剔除服务

属于CAP的AP分支。

八、Zookeeper替代Eureka

ZooKeeper是一个分布式协调工具,可以作为eureka的替代。使用zk作为服务注册中心。

暂不总结

九、Consul服务注册与发现

9.1简介

Consul是一个开源的分布式服务发现与配置系统。

主要有以下特性:

1.服务发现:提供对HTPP/DNS两种发现方式

2.健康检测:支持多种方式,HTTP、TCP、Docker、shell脚本定制化

3.提供KVC存储

4.支持多数据中心

5.可视化界面

9.2下载与使用

下载地址:https://www.consul.io/downloads.html

中文文档:https://www.springcloud.cc/spring-cloud-consul.html

启动

consul agent -dev

可通过http://localhost:8500访问。

9.3新建服务提供者

1.pom

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-consul-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.yml

server:
  # consul服务端口
  port: 8006
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-provider-payment
  cloud:
    consul:
      # consul注册中心地址
      host: localhost
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        hostname: 127.0.0.1
        service-name: ${spring.application.name}

3.启动类:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class PaymentMain8006 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(PaymentMain8006.class, args);
    }
}

9.4新建服务提供者

1.pom

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-consul-discovery</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.启动类

server:
  port: 80
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-consumer-order
  cloud:
    consul:
      # consul注册中心地址
      host: localhost
      port: 8500
      discovery:
        hostname: 127.0.0.1
        service-name: ${spring.application.name}

3.启动类:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class OrderConsulMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderConsulMain80.class, args);
    }
}

4.配置bean

@Configuration
public class ApplicationContextConfig {

    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    public RestTemplate getTemplate(){
        return new RestTemplate();
    }
}

5.controller

@RestController
public class PaymentController {
    private String url = "http://CLOUD-PROVIDER-PAYMENT";

    @Resource
    private RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @RequestMapping("consumer/payment/consul")
    public String cpaymentConsul() {
        String forObject = restTemplate.getForObject(url + "/payment/consul", String.class);
        return forObject;
    }
}

十、CAP理论

C:Consistency(强一致性)

A:Availablity(可用性)

P:Parttition tolerance(分区容错性)

CAP理论关注的粒度时数据而非系统整体架构

AP:eureka

CP:Zookeeper Consul

image-20200419160556200

image-20200419160636686

十一、Ribbon负载均衡调用

11.1简介

Spring Cloud Ribbon是基于Netflix Ribbon实现的一套客户端负载均衡工具。主要是提供客户端的负载均衡和服务调用。

官网地址:https://github.com/Netflix/ribbon/wiki/Getting-Started

但是很遗憾,Ribbon已进入维护模式。未来可以考虑使用SpringCloud loadBalancer替代方案

11.2可以用来做什么

负载均衡:将用户的请求平均分配到多个服务上,从而达到系统的高可用。常见的负载均衡软件有Nginx、LVS、硬件F5等。

Ribbon和Nginx负载均衡的区别:

Nginx是服务器端的负载均衡,客户端的所有请求都会交给服务器端的Nginx。由Nginx实现转发请求。即负载均衡由服务器端实现的。

Ribbon时本地负载均衡,在调用服务接口时,会在注册中心上获取服务列表混存到JVM本地实现负载均衡的调用远程服务。

架构说明:

image-20200418171914125

Rabbin包无需单独引入。已经在Eureka中包含

Ribbon核心组件IRule

根据特定的算法从服务器列表中选取一个要访问的对象服务

1.com.netflix.loadbalancer.RoundRobinRule 轮询

2.com.netflix.loadbalancer.RandomRule 随机

3.com.netflix.loadbalancer.RetryRule 先按照RoundRobinRule的策略获取服务,如果获取服务失败则在指定时间内进行重试,获取可用的服务

4.WeightedResponseTimeRule 对RoundRobinRule的扩展,响应速度越快的实例选择权重越多大,越容易被选择

5.BestAvailableRule 会先过滤掉由于多次访问故障而处于断路器跳闸状态的服务,然后选择一个并发量最小的服务

6.AvailabilityFilteringRule 先过滤掉故障实例,再选择并发较小的实例

7.ZoneAvoidanceRule 默认规则,复合判断server所在区域的性能和server的可用性选择服务器

修改负载均衡规则

@Configuration
public class MySelfRule {

    @Bean
    public IRule myRule() {
        // 定义为随机
        return new RoundRobinRule();
    }
}

启动类添加:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
@RibbonClient(name = "CLOUD-PAYMENT-SERVICE", configuration = MySelfRule.class)
public class OrderMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderMain80.class, args);
    }
}

负载均衡算法

十二、RestTmplate

image-20200418172029370

image-20200418172039660

image-20200418172043634

十三、OpenFeign服务接口调用

简介

OpenFeign是一个声明式Web服务客户端,只需要创建一个接口,即可实现Web远程调用,让编写Web服务客户端变得简单

官网:https://github.com/spring-cloud/spring-cloud-openfeign

Feign和Open Feign的区别:

image-20200419160849350

Open Feign使用步骤

1.pom

        <!--openfeign-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-openfeign</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.yml

server:
  port: 80
eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: true
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka

3.主启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
@EnableFeignClients
public class OrderFeignMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderFeignMain80.class, args);
    }
}

4.业务层

@FeignClient("CLOUD-PAYMENT-SERVICE")
public interface PaymentFeignService {

    @GetMapping("/payment/getPaymentById/{id}")
    public CommonResult getPaymentById(@PathVariable("id") long id);
}

5.controller

@RestController
public class OrderFeignController {
    @Resource
    private PaymentFeignService paymentFeignService;

    @GetMapping(value = "/consumer/payment/get/{id}",produces = "application/json;charset=UTF-8")
    public CommonResult getPaymentById(@PathVariable("id") long id) {
        return paymentFeignService.getPaymentById(id);
    }
}

OpenFeign超时控制

OpenFeign默认等待一秒钟,超时后报错。

超时控制:

server:
  port: 80
eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: true
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka
# 设置feign客户端超时时间(OpenFeign默认支持ribbon)
ribbon:
  # 指的是建立连接所用的时间,适用于网络状态正常的情况下,两端连接所用的时间
  ReadTimeout: 5000
  # 指的是建立连接后从服务器读取到可用资源所用的时间
  ConnectTimeout: 5000

OpenFeign日志打印功能

OpenFeign支持日志打印功能,可以让我们看到HTTP调用的具体细节。

日志级别:

image-20200419164105824

配置

@Configuration
public class FeignConfig {

    /**
     * feignClient配置日志级别
     *
     * @return
     */
    @Bean
    public Logger.Level feignLoggerLevel() {
        // 请求和响应的头信息,请求和响应的正文及元数据
        return Logger.Level.FULL;
    }
}

yml开启日志

server:
  port: 80
eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: true
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka
# 设置feign客户端超时时间(OpenFeign默认支持ribbon)
ribbon:
  # 指的是建立连接所用的时间,适用于网络状态正常的情况下,两端连接所用的时间
  ReadTimeout: 5000
  # 指的是建立连接后从服务器读取到可用资源所用的时间
  ConnectTimeout: 5000
logging:
  level:
    # feign日志以什么级别监控哪个接口
    com.atguigu.springcloud.service.PaymentFeignService: debug

十四、Hystrix熔断器

概述:

image-20200419164322429

能干什么:

服务降级

服务熔断

接近实时的监控

官网:https://github.com/Netflix/hystrix/wiki

但是Hystrix宣布停更进入维护状态。

重要概念

1.服务降级

不让客户端等待,可以立即返回一个有好的提示。

哪些情况会触发降级:

1.程序运行异常

2.超时

3.服务熔断触发降级

4.线程池/信号量也会导致服务降级

2.服务熔断

类似保险丝,当服务导入到最大的服务访问时,直接拒绝访问,然后调用服务降级

3.服务限流

秒杀高并发等操作,严禁一窝蜂的过来拥挤,大家排队,一秒钟处理多少个,有序进行。

使用

1.pom

        <!--hystrix-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.yml

server:
  port: 8001
spring:
  application:
    name: cloud-provider-hystrix-payment
eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: true
    fetch-registry: true
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka

3.主启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
public class PaymentHystrixMain8001 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(PaymentHystrixMain8001.class, args);
    }
}

使用Jemeter进行压测。再用浏览器打开,会陷入无限等待中。

tomcat的默认工作线程数被打满了,没有多余的线程来分解压力和处理

新建80加入,远程访问8001

1.pom

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-openfeign</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <!--eureka client-->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>

2.application.yml

server:
  port: 81
eureka:
  client:
    register-with-eureka: false
    fetch-registry: true
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://eureka7001.com:7001/eureka,http://eureka7002.com:7002/eureka

3.启动类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableEurekaClient
@EnableFeignClients
public class OrderHystrixMain80 {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(OrderHystrixMain80.class, args);
    }
}

此时用jmeter压测8001.再用8001访问ok的服务(访问出错)。

80访问timeout。

十五、Jmenter

Jmeter设置为中文

找到jmeter下的bin目录,打开jmeter.properties 文件

第三十七行修改为

language=zh_CN

去掉前面的#,以后打开就是中文界面了

添加线程组

开启Jmeter,来20000个并发压死8001,20000个请求都去访问paymentInfo_TimeOut服务

image-20200419170311899

添加HTTP请求

image-20200419170552166

MIT License Copyright (c) 2020 成笑笑|做全栈攻城狮 Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

简介

尚硅谷-周阳老师2020spring cloud的学习笔记,主要包含2020年常用微服务组建合集。包括:Eureka、Consul、GateWay、Nacos、Hystrix、Ribbon、Sentinel及alibaba组件 展开 收起
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