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README_zh.md
Apache-2.0

元能力组件

简介

元能力组件,是OpenHarmony为开发者提供的一套开发鸿蒙应用的开发框架。元能力组件由如下模块组成:

图1 元能力组件框架图

  • AbilityKit是Ability框架提供给开发者的开发包,开发者基于该开发包可以开发出基于Ability组件的应用。基于Ability组件开发的应用有两种类型:基于Javascript语言开发的Ability(JS Ability)和基于C/C++语言开发的Ability(Native Ability)。JS应用开发框架是开发者开发JS Ability所用到框架,是在AbilityKit基础封装的包含JS UI组件的一套方便开发者能够迅速开发Ability应用的框架。

  • Ability是系统调度应用的最小单元,是能够完成一个独立功能的组件,一个应用可以包含一个或多个Ability。Ability分为两种类型:Page类型的Ability和Service类型的Ability

    • Page类型的Ability:带有界面,为用户提供人机交互的能力。
    • Service类型的Ability:不带界面,为用户提供后台任务机制。
  • AbilitySlice是单个页面及其控制逻辑的总和,是Page类型Ability特有的组件,一个Page类型的Ability可以包含多个AbilitySlice,此时,这些页面提供的业务能力应当是高度相关的。Page类型的Ability和AbilitySlice的关系如下图2所示:

图2 Ability与AbilitySlice的关系图

  • 生命周期是Ability被调度到启动、激活、隐藏和退出等各个状态的的统称。Ability各生命周期流转如下图所示:

图3 Ability生命周期流转图

  • Ability生命周期各状态解析:

    • UNINITIALIZED:未初始状态,为临时状态,Ability被创建后会由UNINITIALIZED状态进入INITIAL状态;

    • INITIAL:初始化状态,也表示停止状态,表示当前Ability未运行,Ability被启动后由INITIAL态进入INACTIVE状态;

    • INACTIVE:未激活状态,表示当前窗口已显示但是无焦点状态。

    • ACTIVE:前台激活状态,表示当前窗口已显示,并获取焦点,Ability在退到后台之前先由ACTIVE状态进入INACTIVE状态;

    • BACKGROUND: 后台状态,表示当前Ability退到后台,Ability在被销毁后由BACKGROUND状态进入INITIAL状态,或者重新被激活后由BACKGROUND状态进入ACTIVE状态。

  • AbilityLoader负责注册和加载开发者Ability的模块。开发者开发的Ability先要调用AbilityLoader的注册接口注册到框架中,接着Ability启动时会被实例化。

  • AbilityManager负责AbilityKit和Ability管理服务进行IPC的通信。

  • EventHandler是AbilityKit提供给开发者的用于在Ability中实现线程间通信的一个模块。

  • Ability运行管理服务是用于协调各Ability运行关系、及生命周期进行调度的系统服务。其中,服务启动模块负责Ability管理服务的启动、注册等。服务接口管理模块负责Ability管理服务对外能力的管理。进程管理模块负责Ability应用所在进程的启动和销毁、及其进程信息维护等功能。Ability栈管理模块负责维护各个Ability之间跳转的先后关系。生命周期调度模块是Ability管理服务根据系统当前的操作调度Ability进入相应的状态的模块。连接管理模块是Ability管理服务对Service类型Ability连接管理的模块。

  • AppSpawn是负责创建Ability应用所在进程的系统服务,该服务有较高的权限,为Ability应用设置相应的权限,并预加载一些通用的模块,加速应用的启动。

目录

/foundation/ability/ability_lite
     ├── frameworks
     │      ├── ability_lite               # AbilityKit实现的核心代码
     │      ├── abilitymgr_lite            # 管理AbilityKit与Ability管理服务通信的客户端代码
     │      └── want_lite                  # Ability之间交互的信息载体的实现代码
     ├── interfaces
     │      ├── kits
     │      │     ├── ability_lite        # AbilityKit为开发者提供的接口
     │      │     └── want_lite           # Ability之间交互的信息载体的对外接口
     │      └── inner_api
     │             └── abilitymgr_lite     # Ability管理服务为其它子系统提供的接口
     └── services
             └── abilitymgr_lite            # Ability管理服务的实现代码

使用说明

  • 元能力运行管理服务为AbilityMs,服务运行于foudation进程中;

  • AbilityMs注册到sa_manager中,sa_manager运行于foundation进程中,sa_manager为AbilityMs创建线程运行环境。具体创建AbilityMs服务的方式以及使用该服务的方式,可参考系统服务框架子系统;

  • 系统启动后,AbilityMs会随系统启动而启动;

  • 包安装完成后,通过如下命令(以hispark_taurus为例,aa工具在系统构建后放置在out/hispark_taurus/ipcamera_hispark_taurus/dev_tools/bin下),运行Demo启动相应Ability:

./bin/aa start -p com.xxxxxx.hiability -n MainAbility

相关仓

元能力子系统

aafwk_aafwk_lite

appexecfwk_appexecfwk_lite

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简介

Ability framework. An ability is an abstraction of a functionality that an application can provide and is an essential component to OpenHarmony applications. | Ability是应用所具备能力的抽象,也是应用程序的重要组成部分 展开 收起
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