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README_zh.md
Apache-2.0

元能力子系统

简介

元能力子系统实现对Ability的运行及生命周期进行统一的调度和管理,应用进程能够支撑多个Ability,Ability具有跨应用进程间和同一进程内调用的能力。Ability管理服务统一调度和管理应用中各Ability,并对Ability的生命周期变更进行管理。

元能力子系统架构图说明:

  • Ability Kit为Ability的运行提供基础的运行环境支撑。Ability是系统调度应用的最小单元,是能够完成一个独立功能的组件,一个应用可以包含一个或多个Ability。

  • Ability管理服务(AbilityManagerService):用于协调各Ability运行关系、及对生命周期进行调度的系统服务。

    • 连接管理模块(AbilityConnectManager)是Ability管理服务对Service类型Ability连接管理的模块。
    • 数据管理模块(DataAbilityManager)是Ability管理服务对Data类型Ability管理的模块。
    • App管理服务调度模块(AppScheduler)提供Ability管理服务对用户程序管理服务进行调度管理的能力。
    • Ability调度模块(AbilityScheduler)提供对Ability进行调度管理的能力。
    • 生命周期调度模块(LifecycleDeal)是Ability管理服务对Ability的生命周期事件进行管理调度的模块。
  • Ability框架模型结构具有两种框架形态:

    • 第一种形态为FA模型。API 8及其更早版本的应用程序只能使用FA模型进行开发。 FA模型将Ability分为FA(Feature Ability)和PA(Particle Ability)两种类型,其中FA支持Page Ability,PA支持Service Ability、Data Ability、以及FormAbility。
    • 第二种形态为Stage模型。从API 9开始,Ability框架引入了Stage模型作为第二种应用框架形态,Stage模型将Ability分为Ability和ExtensionAbility两大类,其中ExtensionAbility又被扩展为ServiceExtensionAbility、FormExtensionAbility、DataShareExtensionAbility等等一系列ExtensionAbility,以便满足更多的使用场景。

    ​Stage模型的设计,主要是为了方便开发者更加方便地开发出分布式环境下的复杂应用。下表给出了两种模型在设计上的差异:

    对比 FA模型 Stage模型
    开发方式 提供类Web的 api,UI开发与Stage模型一致。 提供面向对象的开发方式,UI开发与FA模型一致。
    引擎实例 每个进程内的每个Ability独享一个JS VM引擎实例。 每个进程内的多个Ability实例共享一个JS VM引擎实例。
    进程内对象共享 不支持。 支持。
    包描述文件 使用config.json描述HAP包和组件信息,组件必须使用固定的文件名。 使用module.json描述HAP包和组件信息,可以指定入口文件名。
    组件 提供PageAbility(页面展示),ServiceAbility(服务),DataAbility(数据分享), FormAbility(卡片)。 提供Ability(页面展示)、Extension(基于场景的服务扩展)。

    ​ 除了上述设计上的差异外,对于开发者而言,两种模型的主要区别在于:

    • Ability类型存在差异;

      favsstage

    • Ability生命周期存在差异;

      lifecycle

目录

foundation/ability            #元能力子系统
├── ability_runtime           #ability_runtime元能力运行时部件
│   ├── frameworks
│   │   ├── js
│   │   │   └── napi          # ability_runtime的napi代码实现
│   │   └── native            # ability_runtime的核心代码实现
│   ├── interfaces
│   │   ├── inner_api         # ability_runtime的系统内部件间接口
│   │   └── kits
│   │       └── native        # ability_runtime的对外接口  
│   ├── services
│   │   ├── abilitymgr        # Ability管理服务框架代码
│   │   ├── appmgr            # App管理服务框架代码
│   │   ├── common            # 服务公共组件目录
│   │   ├── dataobsmgr        # DataAbilityObserver管理服务框架代码
│   │   └── uripermmgr        # UriPermission管理服务框架代码
│   ├── test                  # 测试目录
│   └── tools                 # aa命令工具代码目录

├── ability_base              # ability_base元能力基础部件

├── ability_lite              # ability_lite轻量化元能力部件

├── dmsfwk                    # dmsfwk分布式组件管理部件

├── dmsfwk_lite               # dmsfwk_lite轻量化分布式组件管理部件

├── form_fwk                  # form_fwk卡片运行时部件

├── idl_tool                  # idl工具部件

使用说明

启动Abiltiy

启动新的ability(callback形式)

  • startAbility参数描述
名称 读写属性 类型 必填 描述
parameter 读写 StartAbilityParameter 表示被启动的Ability
callback 只读 AsyncCallback 被指定的回调方法
  • StartAbilityParameter类型说明
名称 读写属性 类型 必填 描述
want 读写 want 表示需要包含有关目标启动能力的信息
abilityStartSetting 只读 string 指示启动能力中使用的特殊启动设置
  • want类型说明
名称 读写属性 类型 必填 描述
deviceId 读写 string 设备id
bundleName 读写 string Bundle名
abilityName 读写 string Ability 名
uri 读写 string 请求中URI的描述
type 读写 string Want中类型的说明
flags 读写 number Want中标志的选项,必填
action 读写 string Want中对操作的描述
parameters 读写 {[key: string]: any} Want中WantParams对象的描述
entities 读写 string 对象中实体的描述
moduleName9+ 读写 string Ability所属的模块(module)名称
  • 返回值

    void

  • 示例

    更多开发指导可参考示例文档

aa命令

aa help

命令 描述
aa help 显示aa命令帮助信息

aa start

命令 描述
aa start [-d ] -a -b [-D] 启动ability,设备ID 可空
示例:
aa start -d 12345 -a com.ohos.app.MainAbility -b com.ohos.app -D

aa dump

命令 描述
aa dump -a 打印栈中的Ability信息

aa force-stop

命令 描述
aa force-stop 强制停止application
示例:
aa force-stop com.ohos.app

相关仓

元能力子系统

ability_base

ability_lite

ability_runtime

dmsfwk

dmsfwk_lite

form_fwk

idl_tool

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