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Apache-2.0

SOFAArk Project

Build Status Coverage Status Gitter license maven

SOFAArk 作为类隔离组件,在蚂蚁内部演进出了一套完整的模块化应用研发框架和平台能力,欢迎大家移步:https://github.com/koupleless/koupleless ,一起讨论和建设模块化架构能力,一起探索微服务的下一站。

SOFAArk 是一款基于 Java 实现的动态热部署和轻量级类隔离框架,由蚂蚁集团开源贡献,主要提供应用模块的动态热部署和类隔离能力。基于 Fat Jar 技术,可以将多个应用模块打包成一个自包含可运行的 Fat Jar,应用既可以是简单的单模块 Java 应用也可以是 SpringBoot/SOFABoot 应用。访问网址进入快速开始并获取更多详细信息。

背景

SOFAArk 最初的场景是解决 Java 开发常常会遇到的包依赖冲突的问题,尤其当工程应用变得臃肿庞大,包冲突的问题也会变得更加棘手,导致各种各样的报错,例如LinkageError, NoSuchMethodError等。实际开发中,可以采用多种方法来解决包冲突问题,比较常见的是类似 SpringBoot 的做法,统一管理应用所有依赖包的版本,保证这些三方包不存在依赖冲突。这种做法只能有效避免包冲突的问题,不能根本上解决包冲突的问题。如果某个应用的确需要在运行时使用两个相互冲突的包,例如 protobuf2protobuf3,那么类似 SpringBoot 的做法依然解决不了问题。

为了彻底解决包冲突的问题,我们需要借助类隔离机制,使用不同的 ClassLoader 加载不同版本的三方依赖,进而隔离包冲突问题。OSGI 作为业内最出名的类隔离框架,自然是可以被用于解决上述包冲突问题,但是 OSGI 框架太过臃肿,功能繁杂。为了解决包冲突问题,引入 OSGI 框架,有牛刀杀鸡之嫌,反而使工程变得更加复杂,不利于开发。

SOFAArk 则采用较为轻量级的类隔离方案来解决日常经常遇到的包冲突问题,在蚂蚁金服内部服务于整个 SOFABoot 技术体系,弥补 SpringBoot 没有的类隔离能力。实际上,SOFAArk 是一个通用的轻量级类隔离框架,并不限于 SpringBoot 应用,也可以和其他的 Java 开发框架集成。

基于类隔离能力 SOFAArk 还提供了动态热部署能力。SOFAArk 不但支持将多个应用合并打成一个可执行的 Fat Jar 包,也支持运行时通过 API 或者 Zookeeper 动态推送配置达到动态部署应用模块的能力。在多团队协作开发时,各个功能模块由不同的团队负责开发,通常情况下,这些功能模块独立开发,但是运行时部署在一起。借助 SOFAArk 提供的合并部署能力,各团队开发时拥有相当大自由度,只需要定义各模块之间的交互接口即可,尤其对于中台应用开发,提高团队合作效率。除了合并部署,SOFAArk 还对接了 Zookeeper 接受动态配置,控制应用模块的动态安装和卸载。

原理

SOFAArk 框架包含有三个概念,Ark Container, Ark PluginArk Biz; 运行时逻辑结构图如下:

framework

在介绍这三个概念之前,为了统一术语,有必要先说一下所谓的 Ark 包;Ark 包是满足特定目录格式要求的 Executed Fat Jar,使用官方提供的 Maven 插件 sofa-ark-maven-plugin可以将工程应用打包成一个标准格式的 Ark 包;使用命令 java -jar application.jar即可在 Ark 容器之上启动应用;Ark 包 通常包含 Ark ContainerArk PluginArk Biz;以下我们针对这三个概念简单做下名词解释:

  • Ark Container: Ark 容器,负责整个运行时的管理;Ark PluginArk Biz 运行在 Ark 容器之上;容器具备管理多插件、多应用的功能;容器启动成功后,会自动解析 classpath 包含的 Ark PluginArk Biz 依赖,完成隔离加载并按优先级依次启动之;

  • Ark Plugin: Ark 插件,满足特定目录格式要求的 Fat Jar,使用官方提供的 Maven 插件 sofa-ark-plugin-maven-plugin 可以将一个或多个普通的 Java  Jar 包打包成一个标准格式的 Ark PluginArk Plugin 会包含一份配置文件,通常包括插件类导入导出配置、插件启动优先级等;运行时,Ark 容器会使用独立的 PluginClassLoader 加载插件,并根据插件配置构建类加载索引表,从而使插件与插件、插件与应用之间相互隔离;

  • Ark Biz: Ark 业务模块,满足特定目录格式要求的 Fat Jar ,使用官方提供的 Maven 插件 sofa-ark-maven-plugin 可以将工程应用打包成一个标准格式的 Ark-Biz 包;是工程应用模块及其依赖包的组织单元,包含应用启动所需的所有依赖和配置;

在运行时,Ark Container 优先启动,自动解析 classpath 包含的 Ark PluginArk Biz,并读取他们的配置,构建类加载索引关系;然后使用独立的 ClassLoader 加载他们并按优先级配置依次启动;需要指出的是,Ark Plugin 优先 Ark Biz 被加载启动;Ark Plugin 之间是双向类索引关系,即可以相互委托对方加载所需的类;Ark PluginArk Biz 是单向类索引关系,即只允许 Ark Biz 索引 Ark Plugin 加载的类,反之则不允许。

场景

包冲突

SOFAArk初衷是为了解决包冲突问题,那什么情况下可以使用 SOFAArk 以及如何使用呢? 假设如下场景,如果工程需要引入两个三方包:A 和 B,但是 A 需要依赖版本号为 0.1 的 C 包,而恰好 B 需要依赖版本号为 0.2 的 C 包,且 C 包的这两个版本无法兼容:

conflict

此时,即可使用 SOFAArk 解决该依赖冲突问题;只需要把 A 和版本为 0.1 的 C 包一起打包成一个 Ark Plugin,然后让应用工程引入该插件依赖即可;

合并部署

SOFAArk 基于类隔离能力,实现了应用的合并部署,可以简单分为静态合并部署和动态合并部署,介绍如下。

静态合并部署

在实际开发过程中,经常会出现多个团队合作开发同一款产品,他们各自负责不同的功能模块,这些功能模块通常可以独立开发,但是运行时需要作为一个整体的应用运行。在这种情况下,所有团队需要协商统一技术栈及各自的二方包版本,这无疑增加了开发和联调的成本。为了让开发人员专注自身功能业务的开发,理想情况下开发人员希望能像开发独立应用一样,仅定义好对外交互接口,而不用考虑和其他功能模块出现的版本冲突、技术栈不统一等问题。正是基于这种场景,SOFAArk 提供了静态合并部署能力,应用可以依赖其他应用打成的 Biz 包,而当自身被打成 Ark 包时,可以将其他应用 Biz 包一并打入,启动时,则会根据优先级依次启动各应用。由于每个应用使用独立的 BizClassLoader 加载,因此不需要考虑依赖冲突或者技术栈不统一问题。应用之间则通过 SofaService/SofaReference JVM 服务进行交互。

动态合并部署

动态合并部署区别于静态合并部署最大的一点是,在应用运行时可以通过 API 或者配置中心(Zookeeper)来控制应用的部署和卸载。动态合并部署的设计理念图如下:

life-arch

无论是静态还是动态合并部署都会有宿主应用(master app)的概念, 如果 Ark 包只打包了一个 Biz,则该 Biz 默认成为宿主应用。如果 Ark 包打包了多个 Biz 包,需要配置指定宿主应用。宿主应用不允许被卸载,一般而言,宿主应用会作为流量入口的中台系统,具体的服务实现会放在不同的动态 Biz 中,供宿主应用调用。宿主应用可以使用 SOFAArk 提供的客户端 API 实现动态应用的部署和卸载。除了 API, SOFAArk 提供了 Config Plugin,用于对接配置中心(目前支持 Zookeeper),运行时接受动态配置。Config Plugin 会解析下发的配置,控制动态模块的部署和卸载。

随着近几年 模块化、Serverless 技术的兴起,蚂蚁集团在应用研发领域进行了持续的建设和探索,基于 SOFAArk 动态合并部署技术打造了比较成熟的 Koupleless 技术体系,去深入解决企业的研发和运维效率问题。其核心方式是通过快速热部署、动态服务发布等技术,将应用从代码结构和开发者阵型划分为模块和基座。其中基座为业务模块提供计算环境并屏蔽基础设施,让模块开发者不用感知机器和容量等底层设施而专注于某个功能模块的开发迭代来帮助业务快速向前发展。

在应用架构领域,不可避免的问题是应用随着业务的复杂度不断增加,研发运维的过程中的问题会不断暴露出来。首先我们看一下普通应用研发和运维过程中的流程是什么样的:

image

如图所示,从需求到设计、开发、线下测试,再到发布线上的研发运维不断反馈、循环迭代的过程。可以简化为开发同学提交代码到代码仓库,在线下做并行的验证测试,测试通过之后在线上发布,发布过程是串行的,只能够有一个发布窗口,这样的过程在应用体量业务还不太复杂的情况下问题,并不是很明显。

但当业务复杂度不断增加,普通应用迭代过程在会出现一些新的问题,如下图:

image

  1. 管理成本高:需求管理、代码管理、人员管理。
  2. 时间成本高:线上验证与发布互相阻塞。单次启动慢。
  3. 变更风险高:一次变更涉及所有代码。一次变更涉及所有机器。

另外,由于这些问题是因为多个业务与研发任务耦合在某些单点上导致的,研发运维的成本随着业务的复杂度呈现出指数增长的特点:

image

通过借助 SOFAArk 框架将应用拆分成基座和模块,同时将应用里的接口按场景维度做分组,使得业务可以按一组接口的粒度进行极速发布运维以及资源按需隔离。

image

从这张图里可以看到 Serverless 应用拆分的形态,通过把一个普通的 Java 应用拆出多个模块,进一步对应用进行了拆分:基座和模块,对应的研发人员也划分为基座开发者和模块开发者。

基座负责沉淀通用的逻辑,为模块提供计算和环境,并为模块开发者屏蔽基础设施,让模块开发者不需要关心容量和资源等。各个模块则是独立的代码仓库,可以进行独立的研发运维,这样研发运维粒度就得到了精细化,并且由于基座为模块屏蔽了环境与基础设施,模块开发者可以专注于业务开发从而提高了业务创新效率。Koupleless 开源版首个 1.0 版本计划已经发布,欢迎大家一起来建设社区 Koupleless 模块化技术。

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致谢

SOFAArk 类隔离框架设计实现主要基于 OSGi 规范及蚂蚁金服的 CloudEngine 容器;同时也参考了 Spring Boot 及阿里的 PandoraBoot,感谢以上产品工作者的辛勤付出。

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简介

SOFAArk 是一款基于 Java 实现的轻量级类隔离容器,主要提供类隔离和应用(模块)动态部署能力 展开 收起
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