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Actions Status License: MIT

Inference of LLaMA model in pure C/C++

Hot topics:

Table of Contents
  1. Description
  2. Usage
  3. Contributing
  4. Coding guidelines
  5. Docs


The main goal of llama.cpp is to run the LLaMA model using 4-bit integer quantization on a MacBook

  • Plain C/C++ implementation without dependencies
  • Apple silicon first-class citizen - optimized via ARM NEON, Accelerate and Metal frameworks
  • AVX, AVX2 and AVX512 support for x86 architectures
  • Mixed F16 / F32 precision
  • 4-bit, 5-bit and 8-bit integer quantization support
  • Supports OpenBLAS/Apple BLAS/ARM Performance Lib/ATLAS/BLIS/Intel MKL/NVHPC/ACML/SCSL/SGIMATH and more in BLAS
  • cuBLAS and CLBlast support

The original implementation of llama.cpp was hacked in an evening. Since then, the project has improved significantly thanks to many contributions. This project is for educational purposes and serves as the main playground for developing new features for the ggml library.

Supported platforms:

  • Mac OS
  • Linux
  • Windows (via CMake)
  • Docker

Supported models:



Here is a typical run using LLaMA-7B:

make -j && ./main -m ./models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -p "Building a website can be done in 10 simple steps:" -n 512
I llama.cpp build info:
I UNAME_S:  Darwin
I UNAME_P:  arm
I UNAME_M:  arm64
I CFLAGS:   -I.              -O3 -DNDEBUG -std=c11   -fPIC -pthread -DGGML_USE_ACCELERATE
I CXXFLAGS: -I. -I./examples -O3 -DNDEBUG -std=c++11 -fPIC -pthread
I LDFLAGS:   -framework Accelerate
I CC:       Apple clang version 14.0.0 (clang-1400.0.29.202)
I CXX:      Apple clang version 14.0.0 (clang-1400.0.29.202)

make: Nothing to be done for `default'.
main: seed = 1678486056
llama_model_load: loading model from './models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin' - please wait ...
llama_model_load: n_vocab = 32000
llama_model_load: n_ctx   = 512
llama_model_load: n_embd  = 4096
llama_model_load: n_mult  = 256
llama_model_load: n_head  = 32
llama_model_load: n_layer = 32
llama_model_load: n_rot   = 128
llama_model_load: f16     = 2
llama_model_load: n_ff    = 11008
llama_model_load: ggml ctx size = 4529.34 MB
llama_model_load: memory_size =   512.00 MB, n_mem = 16384
llama_model_load: .................................... done
llama_model_load: model size =  4017.27 MB / num tensors = 291

main: prompt: 'Building a website can be done in 10 simple steps:'
main: number of tokens in prompt = 15
     1 -> ''
  8893 -> 'Build'
   292 -> 'ing'
   263 -> ' a'
  4700 -> ' website'
   508 -> ' can'
   367 -> ' be'
  2309 -> ' done'
   297 -> ' in'
 29871 -> ' '
 29896 -> '1'
 29900 -> '0'
  2560 -> ' simple'
  6576 -> ' steps'
 29901 -> ':'

sampling parameters: temp = 0.800000, top_k = 40, top_p = 0.950000

Building a website can be done in 10 simple steps:
1) Select a domain name and web hosting plan
2) Complete a sitemap
3) List your products
4) Write product descriptions
5) Create a user account
6) Build the template
7) Start building the website
8) Advertise the website
9) Provide email support
10) Submit the website to search engines
A website is a collection of web pages that are formatted with HTML. HTML is the code that defines what the website looks like and how it behaves.
The HTML code is formatted into a template or a format. Once this is done, it is displayed on the user's browser.
The web pages are stored in a web server. The web server is also called a host. When the website is accessed, it is retrieved from the server and displayed on the user's computer.
A website is known as a website when it is hosted. This means that it is displayed on a host. The host is usually a web server.
A website can be displayed on different browsers. The browsers are basically the software that renders the website on the user's screen.
A website can also be viewed on different devices such as desktops, tablets and smartphones.
Hence, to have a website displayed on a browser, the website must be hosted.
A domain name is an address of a website. It is the name of the website.
The website is known as a website when it is hosted. This means that it is displayed on a host. The host is usually a web server.
A website can be displayed on different browsers. The browsers are basically the software that renders the website on the users screen.
A website can also be viewed on different devices such as desktops, tablets and smartphones. Hence, to have a website displayed on a browser, the website must be hosted.
A domain name is an address of a website. It is the name of the website.
A website is an address of a website. It is a collection of web pages that are formatted with HTML. HTML is the code that defines what the website looks like and how it behaves.
The HTML code is formatted into a template or a format. Once this is done, it is displayed on the users browser.
A website is known as a website when it is hosted

main: mem per token = 14434244 bytes
main:     load time =  1332.48 ms
main:   sample time =  1081.40 ms
main:  predict time = 31378.77 ms / 61.41 ms per token
main:    total time = 34036.74 ms

And here is another demo of running both LLaMA-7B and whisper.cpp on a single M1 Pro MacBook:



Here are the steps for the LLaMA-7B model.

Get the Code

git clone https://github.com/ggerganov/llama.cpp
cd llama.cpp


In order to build llama.cpp you have three different options.

  • Using make:

    • On Linux or MacOS:

    • On Windows:

      1. Download the latest fortran version of w64devkit.
      2. Extract w64devkit on your pc.
      3. Run w64devkit.exe.
      4. Use the cd command to reach the llama.cpp folder.
      5. From here you can run:
  • Using CMake:

    mkdir build
    cd build
    cmake ..
    cmake --build . --config Release
  • Using Zig:

    zig build -Drelease-fast

Metal Build

Using Metal allows the computation to be executed on the GPU for Apple devices:

  • Using make:

    LLAMA_METAL=1 make
  • Using CMake:

    mkdir build-metal
    cd build-metal
    cmake -DLLAMA_METAL=ON ..
    cmake --build . --config Release

When built with Metal support, you can enable GPU inference with the --gpu-layers|-ngl command-line argument. Any value larger than 0 will offload the computation to the GPU. For example:

./main -m ./models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -n 128 -ngl 1

BLAS Build

Building the program with BLAS support may lead to some performance improvements in prompt processing using batch sizes higher than 32 (the default is 512). BLAS doesn't affect the normal generation performance. There are currently three different implementations of it:

  • Accelerate Framework:

    This is only available on Mac PCs and it's enabled by default. You can just build using the normal instructions.

  • OpenBLAS:

    This provides BLAS acceleration using only the CPU. Make sure to have OpenBLAS installed on your machine.

    • Using make:

      • On Linux:

        make LLAMA_OPENBLAS=1
      • On Windows:

        1. Download the latest fortran version of w64devkit.

        2. Download the latest version of OpenBLAS for Windows.

        3. Extract w64devkit on your pc.

        4. From the OpenBLAS zip that you just downloaded copy libopenblas.a, located inside the lib folder, inside w64devkit\x86_64-w64-mingw32\lib.

        5. From the same OpenBLAS zip copy the content of the include folder inside w64devkit\x86_64-w64-mingw32\include.

        6. Run w64devkit.exe.

        7. Use the cd command to reach the llama.cpp folder.

        8. From here you can run:

          make LLAMA_OPENBLAS=1
    • Using CMake on Linux:

      mkdir build
      cd build
      cmake --build . --config Release
  • BLIS

    Check BLIS.md for more information.

  • Intel MKL

    By default, LLAMA_BLAS_VENDOR is set to Generic, so if you already sourced intel environment script and assign -DLLAMA_BLAS=ON in cmake, the mkl version of Blas will automatically been selected. You may also specify it by:

    mkdir build
    cd build
    cmake --build . --config Release
  • cuBLAS

    This provides BLAS acceleration using the CUDA cores of your Nvidia GPU. Make sure to have the CUDA toolkit installed. You can download it from your Linux distro's package manager or from here: CUDA Toolkit.

    • Using make:

      make LLAMA_CUBLAS=1
    • Using CMake:

      mkdir build
      cd build
      cmake .. -DLLAMA_CUBLAS=ON
      cmake --build . --config Release

    The environment variable CUDA_VISIBLE_DEVICES can be used to specify which GPU(s) will be used.

  • CLBlast

    OpenCL acceleration is provided by the matrix multiplication kernels from the CLBlast project and custom kernels for ggml that can generate tokens on the GPU.

    You will need the OpenCL SDK.

    • For Ubuntu or Debian, the packages opencl-headers, ocl-icd may be needed.

    • Installing the OpenCL SDK from source
      git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/KhronosGroup/OpenCL-SDK.git
      mkdir OpenCL-SDK/build
      cd OpenCL-SDK/build
      cmake .. -DBUILD_DOCS=OFF \
      cmake --build . --config Release
      cmake --install . --prefix /some/path

    Installing CLBlast: it may be found in your operating system's packages.

    • If not, then installing from source:
      git clone https://github.com/CNugteren/CLBlast.git
      mkdir CLBlast/build
      cd CLBLast/build
      cmake --build . --config Release
      cmake --install . --prefix /some/path

      Where /some/path is where the built library will be installed (default is /usr/local).


    • Build with make:
      make LLAMA_CLBLAST=1
    • CMake:
      mkdir build
      cd build
      cmake .. -DLLAMA_CLBLAST=ON -DCLBlast_dir=/some/path
      cmake --build . --config Release


    The CLBlast build supports --gpu-layers|-ngl like the CUDA version does.

    To select the correct platform (driver) and device (GPU), you can use the environment variables GGML_OPENCL_PLATFORM and GGML_OPENCL_DEVICE. The selection can be a number (starting from 0) or a text string to search:

    GGML_OPENCL_PLATFORM=1 ./main ...
    GGML_OPENCL_DEVICE=2 ./main ...
    GGML_OPENCL_PLATFORM=Intel ./main ...

    The default behavior is to find the first GPU device, but when it is an integrated GPU on a laptop, for instance, the selectors are useful. Using the variables it is possible to select a CPU-based driver as well, if so desired.

    You can get a list of platforms and devices from the clinfo -l command, etc.

Prepare Data & Run

# obtain the original LLaMA model weights and place them in ./models
ls ./models
65B 30B 13B 7B tokenizer_checklist.chk tokenizer.model

# install Python dependencies
python3 -m pip install -r requirements.txt

# convert the 7B model to ggml FP16 format
python3 convert.py models/7B/

# quantize the model to 4-bits (using q4_0 method)
./quantize ./models/7B/ggml-model-f16.bin ./models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin q4_0

# run the inference
./main -m ./models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -n 128

When running the larger models, make sure you have enough disk space to store all the intermediate files.

Memory/Disk Requirements

As the models are currently fully loaded into memory, you will need adequate disk space to save them and sufficient RAM to load them. At the moment, memory and disk requirements are the same.

Model Original size Quantized size (4-bit)
7B 13 GB 3.9 GB
13B 24 GB 7.8 GB
30B 60 GB 19.5 GB
65B 120 GB 38.5 GB


Several quantization methods are supported. They differ in the resulting model disk size and inference speed.

Model Measure F16 Q4_0 Q4_1 Q5_0 Q5_1 Q8_0
7B perplexity 5.9066 6.1565 6.0912 5.9862 5.9481 5.9070
7B file size 13.0G 3.5G 3.9G 4.3G 4.7G 6.7G
7B ms/tok @ 4th 127 55 54 76 83 72
7B ms/tok @ 8th 122 43 45 52 56 67
7B bits/weight 16.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 8.5
13B perplexity 5.2543 5.3860 5.3608 5.2856 5.2706 5.2548
13B file size 25.0G 6.8G 7.6G 8.3G 9.1G 13G
13B ms/tok @ 4th - 103 105 148 160 131
13B ms/tok @ 8th - 73 82 98 105 128
13B bits/weight 16.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 8.5

Perplexity (measuring model quality)

You can use the perplexity example to measure perplexity over a given prompt (lower perplexity is better). For more information, see https://huggingface.co/docs/transformers/perplexity.

The perplexity measurements in table above are done against the wikitext2 test dataset (https://paperswithcode.com/dataset/wikitext-2), with context length of 512. The time per token is measured on a MacBook M1 Pro 32GB RAM using 4 and 8 threads.

Interactive mode

If you want a more ChatGPT-like experience, you can run in interactive mode by passing -i as a parameter. In this mode, you can always interrupt generation by pressing Ctrl+C and entering one or more lines of text, which will be converted into tokens and appended to the current context. You can also specify a reverse prompt with the parameter -r "reverse prompt string". This will result in user input being prompted whenever the exact tokens of the reverse prompt string are encountered in the generation. A typical use is to use a prompt that makes LLaMa emulate a chat between multiple users, say Alice and Bob, and pass -r "Alice:".

Here is an example of a few-shot interaction, invoked with the command

# default arguments using a 7B model

# advanced chat with a 13B model

# custom arguments using a 13B model
./main -m ./models/13B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -n 256 --repeat_penalty 1.0 --color -i -r "User:" -f prompts/chat-with-bob.txt

Note the use of --color to distinguish between user input and generated text. Other parameters are explained in more detail in the README for the main example program.


Persistent Interaction

The prompt, user inputs, and model generations can be saved and resumed across calls to ./main by leveraging --prompt-cache and --prompt-cache-all. The ./examples/chat-persistent.sh script demonstrates this with support for long-running, resumable chat sessions. To use this example, you must provide a file to cache the initial chat prompt and a directory to save the chat session, and may optionally provide the same variables as chat-13B.sh. The same prompt cache can be reused for new chat sessions. Note that both prompt cache and chat directory are tied to the initial prompt (PROMPT_TEMPLATE) and the model file.

# Start a new chat
PROMPT_CACHE_FILE=chat.prompt.bin CHAT_SAVE_DIR=./chat/default ./examples/chat-persistent.sh

# Resume that chat
PROMPT_CACHE_FILE=chat.prompt.bin CHAT_SAVE_DIR=./chat/default ./examples/chat-persistent.sh

# Start a different chat with the same prompt/model
PROMPT_CACHE_FILE=chat.prompt.bin CHAT_SAVE_DIR=./chat/another ./examples/chat-persistent.sh

# Different prompt cache for different prompt/model
PROMPT_TEMPLATE=./prompts/chat-with-bob.txt PROMPT_CACHE_FILE=bob.prompt.bin \
    CHAT_SAVE_DIR=./chat/bob ./examples/chat-persistent.sh

Instruction mode with Alpaca

  1. First, download the ggml Alpaca model into the ./models folder
  2. Run the main tool like this:

Sample run:

== Running in interactive mode. ==
 - Press Ctrl+C to interject at any time.
 - Press Return to return control to LLaMa.
 - If you want to submit another line, end your input in '\'.

 Below is an instruction that describes a task. Write a response that appropriately completes the request.

> How many letters are there in the English alphabet?
There 26 letters in the English Alphabet
> What is the most common way of transportation in Amsterdam?
The majority (54%) are using public transit. This includes buses, trams and metros with over 100 lines throughout the city which make it very accessible for tourists to navigate around town as well as locals who commute by tram or metro on a daily basis
> List 5 words that start with "ca".
cadaver, cauliflower, cabbage (vegetable), catalpa (tree) and Cailleach.

Using GPT4All

  • Obtain the tokenizer.model file from LLaMA model and put it to models
  • Obtain the added_tokens.json file from Alpaca model and put it to models
  • Obtain the gpt4all-lora-quantized.bin file from GPT4All model and put it to models/gpt4all-7B
  • It is distributed in the old ggml format which is now obsoleted
  • You have to convert it to the new format using convert.py:
python3 convert.py models/gpt4all-7B/gpt4all-lora-quantized.bin
  • You can now use the newly generated models/gpt4all-7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin model in exactly the same way as all other models

  • The newer GPT4All-J model is not yet supported!

Using Pygmalion 7B & Metharme 7B

python3 convert.py pygmalion-7b/ --outtype q4_1

The Pygmalion 7B & Metharme 7B weights are saved in bfloat16 precision. If you wish to convert to ggml without quantizating, please specify the --outtype as f32 instead of f16.

Obtaining the Facebook LLaMA original model and Stanford Alpaca model data

  • Under no circumstances should IPFS, magnet links, or any other links to model downloads be shared anywhere in this repository, including in issues, discussions, or pull requests. They will be immediately deleted.
  • The LLaMA models are officially distributed by Facebook and will never be provided through this repository.
  • Refer to Facebook's LLaMA repository if you need to request access to the model data.

Verifying the model files

Please verify the sha256 checksums of all downloaded model files to confirm that you have the correct model data files before creating an issue relating to your model files.

  • The following python script will verify if you have all possible latest files in your self-installed ./models subdirectory:
# run the verification script
python3 .\scripts\verify-checksum-models.py
  • On linux or macOS it is also possible to run the following commands to verify if you have all possible latest files in your self-installed ./models subdirectory:
    • On Linux: sha256sum --ignore-missing -c SHA256SUMS
    • on macOS: shasum -a 256 --ignore-missing -c SHA256SUMS

Seminal papers and background on the models

If your issue is with model generation quality, then please at least scan the following links and papers to understand the limitations of LLaMA models. This is especially important when choosing an appropriate model size and appreciating both the significant and subtle differences between LLaMA models and ChatGPT:

How to run

  1. Download/extract: https://s3.amazonaws.com/research.metamind.io/wikitext/wikitext-2-raw-v1.zip?ref=salesforce-research
  2. Run ./perplexity -m models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -f wiki.test.raw
  3. Output:
perplexity : calculating perplexity over 655 chunks
24.43 seconds per pass - ETA 4.45 hours

And after 4.45 hours, you will have the final perplexity.


Building the Project using Android NDK

You can easily run llama.cpp on Android device with termux. First, obtain the Android NDK and then build with CMake:

$ mkdir build-android
$ cd build-android
$ export NDK=<your_ndk_directory>
$ cmake -DCMAKE_TOOLCHAIN_FILE=$NDK/build/cmake/android.toolchain.cmake -DANDROID_ABI=arm64-v8a -DANDROID_PLATFORM=android-23 -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS=-march=armv8.4a+dotprod ..
$ make

Install termux on your device and run termux-setup-storage to get access to your SD card. Finally, copy the llama binary and the model files to your device storage. Here is a demo of an interactive session running on Pixel 5 phone:


Building the Project using Termux (F-Droid)

Termux from F-Droid offers an alternative route to execute the project on an Android device. This method empowers you to construct the project right from within the terminal, negating the requirement for a rooted device or SD Card.

Outlined below are the directives for installing the project using OpenBLAS and CLBlast. This combination is specifically designed to deliver peak performance on recent devices that feature a GPU.

If you opt to utilize OpenBLAS, you'll need to install the corresponding package.

apt install libopenblas

Subsequently, if you decide to incorporate CLBlast, you'll first need to install the requisite OpenCL packages:

apt install ocl-icd opencl-headers opencl-clhpp clinfo

In order to compile CLBlast, you'll need to first clone the respective Git repository, which can be found at this URL: https://github.com/CNugteren/CLBlast. Alongside this, clone this repository into your home directory. Once this is done, navigate to the CLBlast folder and execute the commands detailed below:

cmake .
cp libclblast.so* $PREFIX/lib
cp ./include/clblast.h ../llama.cpp

Following the previous steps, navigate to the LlamaCpp directory. To compile it with OpenBLAS and CLBlast, execute the command provided below:

cp /data/data/com.termux/files/usr/include/openblas/cblas.h .
cp /data/data/com.termux/files/usr/include/openblas/openblas_config.h .
make LLAMA_CLBLAST=1 //(sometimes you need to run this command twice)

Upon completion of the aforementioned steps, you will have successfully compiled the project. To run it using CLBlast, a slight adjustment is required: a command must be issued to direct the operations towards your device's physical GPU, rather than the virtual one. The necessary command is detailed below:

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/system/vendor/lib64:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
./main (...)

For easy and swift re-execution, consider documenting this final part in a .sh script file. This will enable you to rerun the process with minimal hassle.



  • Docker must be installed and running on your system.
  • Create a folder to store big models & intermediate files (ex. /llama/models)


We have two Docker images available for this project:

  1. ghcr.io/ggerganov/llama.cpp:full: This image includes both the main executable file and the tools to convert LLaMA models into ggml and convert into 4-bit quantization.
  2. ghcr.io/ggerganov/llama.cpp:light: This image only includes the main executable file.


The easiest way to download the models, convert them to ggml and optimize them is with the --all-in-one command which includes the full docker image.

Replace /path/to/models below with the actual path where you downloaded the models.

docker run -v /path/to/models:/models ghcr.io/ggerganov/llama.cpp:full --all-in-one "/models/" 7B

On completion, you are ready to play!

docker run -v /path/to/models:/models ghcr.io/ggerganov/llama.cpp:full --run -m /models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -p "Building a website can be done in 10 simple steps:" -n 512

or with a light image:

docker run -v /path/to/models:/models ghcr.io/ggerganov/llama.cpp:light -m /models/7B/ggml-model-q4_0.bin -p "Building a website can be done in 10 simple steps:" -n 512


  • Contributors can open PRs
  • Collaborators can push to branches in the llama.cpp repo and merge PRs into the master branch
  • Collaborators will be invited based on contributions
  • Any help with managing issues and PRs is very appreciated!
  • Make sure to read this: Inference at the edge
  • A bit of backstory for those who are interested: Changelog podcast

Coding guidelines

  • Avoid adding third-party dependencies, extra files, extra headers, etc.
  • Always consider cross-compatibility with other operating systems and architectures
  • Avoid fancy looking modern STL constructs, use basic for loops, avoid templates, keep it simple
  • There are no strict rules for the code style, but try to follow the patterns in the code (indentation, spaces, etc.). Vertical alignment makes things more readable and easier to batch edit
  • Clean-up any trailing whitespaces, use 4 spaces for indentation, brackets on the same line, void * ptr, int & a
  • See good first issues for tasks suitable for first contributions


MIT License Copyright (c) 2023 Georgi Gerganov Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.


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